Technical terms of quality management: R



Method to assess an organization‘s maturity level. RADAR stands for Results, Approach, Deployment, Assessment and Refine. It belongs to the model prepared by the EFQM which is used to assess an organization‘s progress towards the achievement of excellent results. The assessment method is based on relevance and usability, the Results, the Approach that leads to them, the degree of Deployment and the Assessment and Refinement (EFQM Excellence Model 2010). The individual assessments of the 32 sub-criteria can be combined into a total assessment between 0 and 1000 points.



Deutsches Institut für Gütesicherung und Kennzeichnung e.V., Sankt Augustin. Non-profit institution founded in 1925 under the name Reichs-Ausschuss für Lieferbedingungen (RAL – Imperial Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance). Today its fundamental functions are: creating quality marks, delivering globally binding color references, awarding the “Blue Angel” environmental label and the European eco label, registrations, agreements, and RAL attestations. www.ral.de


Random deviation of measurement

Non-controllable, random deviation of the measurement result from the expectation. (On the basis of DIN 1319-1)


Random sampling

Sampling that is carried out according to a random procedure. In this case, a specified sampling probability is assigned to every possible combination of sampling units. (On the basis of DIN 55350-14)


Random word analysis

Creativity technique in which ideas are derived from randomly selected words (or images). The random element is used to produce completely new associations and ideas. Procedure: First a word is selected from a random source that has nothing to do with the initial problem (for example, a random word from the dictionary). This word is used as a stimulus for a solution. In the next step, all participants note what this word brings to mind (brainstorming). Then the noted ideas are analyzed and applied to the starting problem.



Difference between the largest individual actual value and the smallest individual actual value. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11-04:2012)


Receiving inspection

Quality inspection for accepting a product. The customer (further processor, dealer or end customer), the client or a representative body conducts the receiving inspection. (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)



Renewed certification. Before a certificate expires, a re-certification can be performed. Certificates for management systems are usually valid for three years. See also: Repeat audit.



Evaluation of an audit finding. Example: A required procedure of a normative requirement is completely fulfilled, or a required procedure is completely installed in the company. Planning, performance of the planned activities, and effectiveness of the activities can be proven. The recommendation points out a potential for increasing the effectiveness. A corrective action is not absolutely required, and the issuing or maintenance of a certificate is also not called into question. Recommended actions can be carried out.



  1. Verification document that reflects a situation (e.g., after an activity has been carried out) or an achieved result at a specific time. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
  2. Document that displays the achieved results or that verifies activities that have been performed. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015) Recurring inspection

Quality inspection that is conducted renewed each time (recurring) on one and the same unit (in a sequence of scheduled quality inspections). (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)


Red X

Concept from the Six Sigma methodology. It describes the core factors that influence a process. These are identified and optimally adjusted in the Six Sigma DMAIC project management phases. The objective is to increase the process capability.



See Business process reengineering.


Reference conditions

Fixed ranges for permissible values of influencing factors. The ranges are defined by target values with limiting values or tolerance zones. (On the basis of DIN 1319-1)


Reference management standard

Measurement standard with the highest locally available precision. The measurement made there is derived from this measurement standard (= reference). (On the basis of DIN 1319-1)


Reference material

Material or substance with characteristics whose values are fixed with sufficient precision and time dependency. These refer to the calibration, evaluation of a measurement procedure or quantitative determination of a material‘s characteristic values. (On the basis of DIN 1319-1)


Reference model

(Process) model to structure/prepare the processes in a company that is typical for the sector and that has a certain degree of general validity.


Reference procedure

Stipulated procedure used to determine a sequence of characteristic values of a continuous characteristic that is valid on the basis of an agreement. (DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)



Assignment of a nonconforming product into a different grade with the objective of satisfying the requirements that could not be fulfilled in the original grade due to a deviation from the required specification. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)



Statistical model for the quantitative description of a correlation between an input variable and an output variable. A regression function describes the model, and a regression line, for example, shows it graphically. There are simple, multiple, linear and nonlinear regressions.



Regulatory body for the telecommunication and postal sectors in Germany. The organization was founded on January 1, 1998 and renamed as the Bundesnetzagentur on July 13, 2005. See BNetzA.



A document that has binding, statutory stipulations and that is prepared by a public authority. (On the basis of DIN 45020-21)


Regulation (EC) No. 1221/2009

See EMAS. This regulation replaces Regulation (EC) No. 761/2001 and entered into force on January 11, 2010.


Regulation (EC) No. 761/2001

See EMAS. This regulation was repealed by Regulation (EC) No. 1221/2009 from November 25, 2009.



Nonconforming product that can no longer be used for the originally intended purpose and that should be disposed of. The disposal can be in the form of recycling, destruction or scrapping. Nonconforming products that, for example, are not reworked because of cost considerations, are likewise rejects. (On the basis of DIN 55350-11)


Relationship management

You can find out more about this in the Quality management principles.



Approval for the next step in a process. In conjunction with software, the word “release“ often refers to the version of the software. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Remote location

Location that is not the site of any production processes but that supports production sites. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)



Action taken on a nonconforming product in order to make it acceptable for the intended use. Repairs also include remedial actions taken on a product that is now nonconforming but that was previously conforming in order to restore it for use (for example, as part of maintenance). A repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product, unlike rework. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Repeat audit

Audit that is conducted before the validity of the certificate has expired in order to verify the effectiveness of the quality management system and its conformity with the standard with respect to the certifier again. See also Recertification.


Repeat inspection

Quality inspection that takes place when an undesirable result was determined on a unit (same type or on the improved unit) in a previous, authorized quality inspection. (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)



Expectation or need that is specified, usually assumed or obligatory. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Requirement specification

Rough concept that describes the requirements, expectations and wishes for a planned product.



Measure of the distance between neighboring measured values that a measuring instrument can still unambiguously distinguish. (On the basis of DIN 1319-1)



Part of competence that specifies which activities are to be carried out.
Note: Making decisions is also one of the activities. (DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)


Responsibility diagram

Depiction of all necessary process details. The flow is divided in such a way that all process steps that belong to a person, department or company (or sphere of responsibility) are drawn in a separate area of the diagram. It is particularly well-suited to visualize problems that are based on structural causes.


Responsible Care

This global initiative stands for the chemical industry‘s intention to strive for the continuous improvement of the companies in the areas of the environment, safety and health (independently of statutory provisions) and also to report the progress to the public on a regular basis.


Result of determination

Characteristic value that is ascertained by determination. Depending on the type of determination, the result of determination can be called the assessment result, observation result, measurement result, calculation result or statistical estimation result. It can refer to any type of characteristic. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12)



  1. Activity to determine if an object is suitable, adequate and effective for achieving established objectives, e.g., management review, design and development review, review of customer requirements or review of corrective actions. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
  2. See Management review.

Review technique

Method to review the development quality. With the help of a questionnaire, the project or product is technically and organizationally analyzed and critically judged. The military sector developed the review technique method in the mid-1960s.



Action taken on a nonconforming product so that it can still satisfy the requirements. Rework does not affect or change parts of the nonconforming product; repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)



Consequence (effect) of uncertainty. Uncertainty is characterized by a lack of information or knowledge with respect to an event, its consequences or probability. Any deviation from expectations (either positive or negative) is called an effect. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Risk priority number

This value can be used to help quantify potential failures (nonconformities) for risk assessment (in the framework of the FMEA). The risk priority number (RPN) is calculated as follows:
RPN = probability of the occurrence (of a potential failure) x Severity of the consequences x Probability of detection.
As a rule, the values lie between 1 and 1000.



See Risk priority number.

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