Technical terms of quality management: G


Gaussian normal distribution

See Normal distribution.



A term that originated in Japan and one of the “3Gs“. It means the place where something happens, or in a business management sense, also the place where value is created. As a management concept, Gemba means that solutions to problems should be found where the problems occur, such as the production workplace. Only immediate and direct experience at the location (with all senses) allows a problem to be adequately understood. In the area of customer focus, Gemba means that the actual needs of a customer in his or her actual living environment must be determined. Consequently in general, the greater value of one‘s own direct experience is stressed over “second-hand experience“ (e.g., written report).



Gembutsu (real things) means to go to the site in order to observe a process or workplace instead of talking about it from a distance. (Term that originated in Japan and one of the “3Gs“).



True facts (and no assumptions). The “true fact“ can be determined by data collection in the problem-solving process. Nonconformity and rejection rates and developments over time are used here as performance figures. (Term that originated in Japan and one of the “3Gs“).


Generally accepted rules of technology

Technical rules for the development and execution of physical structures or technical objects. These rules are seen as theoretically correct from a scientific point of view and are applied in practice. They extend beyond the applicable technical regulations and standards.


Geräte- und Produktsicherheitsgesetz

German Equipment and Product Safety Act. In Germany, this law regulates the placement of products on the market and the display of products, as well as the construction and operation of systems that require monitoring. The Geräte- und Produktsicherheitsgesetz superseded the Produktsicherheitsgesetz (ProdSG – Product Safety Act) and the Gerätesicherheitsgesetz (GSG – Equipment Safety Act) on May 1, 2004. This Act implemented the European directive on general product safety in Germany into national law.



See Good Laboratory Practice.



See Good Manufacturing Practice.


Good Laboratory Practice

Quality assurance system that deals with the organizational flow and general conditions under which non-clinical safety inspections relevant to health and the environment are planned, conducted and monitored. GLP also deals with the recording, archiving and reporting with regard to the inspections. (GLP principles of the OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development)


Good Manufacturing Practice

This standard from the WHO places binding requirements on the manufacturers of food and medicinal products. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) has the nature of a law in the health sector.



See Geräte- und Produktsicherheitsgesetz.



Gesellschaft für Qualitätswissenschaft e.V., at the Technische Universität Berlin, www.tu-cottbus.de/gqw



Measure of value or class that describes the various quality requirements placed on products, processes or systems with the same functional use. Example: Hotel category according to stars or classes in plane tickets (e.g., first, business or economy class). (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Green Belt

Project leader in Six Sigma standard projects. The Green Belt is responsible for organizing such a project. This person selects the project members, defines the project contents and objectives with the Champion and the Black Belt and independently applies simple tools. The Green Belt ensures that the improvements that are worked out are integrated into the daily work sequences and consequently are lastingly preserved for the company. It has also proven to be advantageous if the Green Belts are the process owners and consequently that their interest in sustainable improvement is especially strong.


Group work

Cooperation among individual people on a specific topic.
Essential prerequisites for successful group work are:

  • Support from management,
  • Interdisciplinary composition of the group members and
  • Sufficient participant knowledge of the methods regarding the performance of group work.

A risk with group work is that responsibility is seen as a “hot potato“ that is passed from one person to the next.



Geprüfte Sicherheit [Tested Safety]. See GS mark.


GS mark

The GS mark is an indicator of “Tested Safety“. The mark was introduced in 1977 and is based on the Geräte- und Produktsicherheitsgesetz (GPSG – Equipment and Product Safety Act), according to which the Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung (German Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs) can designate testing centers that have the right to issue the GS mark for devices and technical work materials, as far as these are covered by the GPSG. This includes products for commercial and private requirements.



Also liability for defects. Certain legal consequences and demands to which the purchaser is entitled in the framework of a sales agreement in the event that the seller has supplied unsatisfactory goods or items. A contract for work and services also provides a guarantee for deficiencies in the work produced. A warranty differs from the legally stipulated guarantee because there is no legal obligation to give a warranty promise. An EU directive specifies minimum standards for the guarantee in the case of commercial sale to private end customers. In principle, claims exist against the seller, but not against the manufacturer of the goods.


Guideline document

Document with requirements for the offered product and instructions for the activities to be carried out.
(DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)



Recommendation or suggestions that are described in documents. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)

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