Technical terms of quality management: O



A product, service, process, person, organization, system or resource. Any material or immaterial entity or item or anything conceivable. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)



A result which needs to be achieved. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Objective evidence

Data that prove the existence or truth of something. Observation, measurement and testing are means for producing objective evidence. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)



See Operating characteristic curve.


Occupational health and safety

In the EU, this is regulated by standardized directives that the member states are to implement into national law. Occupational health and safety includes safe working conditions (e.g., mandatory helmets), health protection (avoidance of chronic illnesses or impairments resulting from hazardous substances, noise, etc.) and personal protection (maternity leave, protection of young people). In Germany the basis is the “Gesetz über die Durchführung von Maßnahmen des Arbeitsschutzes zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit und des Gesundheitsschutzes der Beschäftigten bei der Arbeit“ (Law regulating the performance of occupational health and safety measures in order to improve the safety and health protection of employees at work – ArbSchG from August 7, 1996).


Occupational health and safety management

All coordinated activities and actions for the establishment, longterm guarantee and improvement of occupational health and safety. In particular, occupational health and safety management is obligated to fulfill numerous statutory requirements according to which suitable technical, organizational and personal actions are to be taken that ensure and improve the safety and health protection of the employees when performing their work.



Opportunity for Improvement. Audit finding that is used by various certification organizations. See Recommendation.



Occupational health and safety. (On the basis of ISO 45001:2018)



Occupational Health and Risk Management System. Management system to protect the health and safety of the employees and people living close to industrial plants. Accident rates and workrelated illnesses should be kept as low as possible by applying the standard. The Bavarian Arbeitsministerium (Department of Labor) developed OHRIS and published it for the first time in 1998.



Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series.


OHSAS 18001

Occupational health and safety management system specification. Certifiable international standard for an occupational health and safety management system. OHSAS was developed by the British Standards Institution in cooperation with international certification companies. ISO 45001 serves to repeal OHSAS 18001.


OHSAS 18002

Guidelines to implement OHSAS 18001. Instruction to implement an OHSMS (occupational health and safety management system).



See Occupational health and safety management.



See Operator inspection.



Austrian Standards Institute with headquarters in Vienna. www.as-institute.at


One-factor method

Traditional method for conducting experiments. In the search for the optimal settings (“best settings“) for the input variables/factors of a process, only one factor is changed at a time and then the change in the output variables is measured. Unlike in DoE, possible interrelations among the input variables are not taken into account here.


One-sample t-test

Statistical method to compare the average value of a population with a specification.
Example: Examination using samples to see if an average delivery time of x days can be guaranteed with the current process.


Operating characteristic curve

Probability of acceptance of an inspection lot as a function of its quality level in the framework of an acceptance sampling inspection. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11-04:2012)


Operating instructions

Document that should exclusively point out hazards. In Germany, operating instructions are prepared for biological agents, hazardous substances and their preparations that contain such substances at a level greater than a certain percent, and for machines and other technical systems. The Employer‘s Liability Insurance Associations recommend the following contents for operating instructions: Scope; hazards for people and the environment; protective measures and rules of conduct; conduct in case of disturbances; conduct in case of accidents; first aid; proper disposal/maintenance (for machines/technical systems); and consequences in the event of non-compliance.


Operation accuracy

Production accuracy resulting from the production equipment.
(DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)


Operator inspection

Quality inspection that is conducted by the operator itself. It is a necessary part of quality control. (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)



Österreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Förderung der Qualität (QUALITY AUSTRIA), Vienna, Austria. www.qualityaustria.com



A structure composed of people and facilities that is characterized as an arrangement of processes, responsibilities, authorities and relationships. As examples, the standard lists: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity, sole trader, association, or parts or combinations of these. An organization can have a public or private nature. The standard points out that this definition applies in the framework of standards on quality management systems and that the term “organization“ is defined differently in the ISO/IEC Guide 2. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)


Organization with development responsibility

Organization that is permitted to develop new product specifications or change existing product specifications. This responsibility also comprises the testing and verification of the development performance in the framework of the application that was specified by the customer (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016).


Organizational structure

Orderly arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between people. The formal organizational structure is usually shown in a quality manual or a quality plan (for a project). Important interfaces to external organizations can be contained in the scope of an organizational structure. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)



Operating time between failures.



Operating time to first failure. Uptime.



Measured value of a sample with an unusually large deviation from other values from the sample that deviate randomly from one another. This deviation is so large that it presumably originates from another population or is the result of an error that occurred during the measurement.


Outsourced processes

Selected processes that the organization assigns to external partners instead of handling them itself. Outsourced processes are characterized by being required for the quality management system. The organization retains the responsibility for the results of these processes and must ensure that the outsourced processes also fulfill customer requirements and statutory and regulatory requirements. Consequently the organization must appropriately control them. (Cf. ISO 9001:2015)


Overhead costs

Costs that cannot be directly attributed to an activity unit. Instead they have to be apportioned to the cost centers according to a distribution key.


Overview diagram

Depiction of the starting and end points of a process. This overview concentrates on the highest level of the process depiction.



Österreichische Vereinigung für Qualitätssicherung. Earlier name of the ÖQA.

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